X. Chen, A. Edelstein, Y. Li, M. Coates, M. Rabbat, and A. Men, "Sequential Monte Carlo for simultaneous passive device-free tracking and sensor localization using received signal strength measurements," 2011 10th International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), Chicago, IL, USA, pp. 342-353, Apr. 2011. [On IEEExplore] [Show abstract]
This paper presents and evaluates a method for simultaneously tracking a target while localizing the sensor nodes of a passive device-free tracking system. The system uses received signal strength (RSS) measurements taken on the links connecting many nodes in a wireless sensor network, with nodes deployed such that the links overlap across the region. A target moving through the region attenuates links intersecting or nearby its path. At the same time, RSS measurements provide information about the relative locations of sensor nodes. We utilize the Sequential Monte Carlo (particle filtering) framework for tracking, and we use an online EM algorithm to simultaneously estimate static parameters (including the sensor locations, as well as model parameters including noise variance and attenuation strength of the target). Simultaneous tracking, online calibration and parameter estimation enable rapid deployment of a RSS-based device free localization system, e.g., in emergency response scenarios. Simulation results and experiments with a wireless sensor network testbed illustrate that the proposed tracking method performs well in a variety of settings.
A. Edelstein, X. Chen, Y. Li, and M. Rabbat, "RSS-based node localization in the presence of attenuating objects," 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 3528-3531, May 2011. [On IEEExplore] [Show abstract]
Node localization is an important task in the context of wireless sensor networks. Although algorithms already exist to carry out localization using measurements of received signal strength (RSS), none of these methods take into account the attenuating and scattering effects of objects which lie within or around the network and which therefore affect the obtained RSS measurements. In this paper, we use a map of the attenuations seen over a given area in order to reinterpret the measured RSS values, thereby refining RSS-based node localization and providing significant improvements over existing algorithms. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance gains which can be achieved using our method.
A. Edelstein, M. Rabbat, "Background subtraction for online calibration of baseline RSS in RF sensing networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 2386-2398, Dec. 2013 [On IEEExplore] [Show abstract]
Radio frequency (RF) sensing networks are a class of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which use RF signals to accomplish tasks such as passive device-free localization and tracking. The algorithms used for these tasks usually require access to measurements of baseline received signal strength (RSS) on each link. However, it is often impossible to collect this calibration data (measurements collected during an offline calibration period when the region of interest is empty of targets). We propose adapting background subtraction methods from the field of computer vision to estimate baseline RSS values from measurements taken while the system is online and obstructions may be present. This is done by forming an analogy between the intensity of a background pixel in an image and the baseline RSS value of a WSN link and then translating the concepts of temporal similarity, spatial similarity and spatial ergodicity which underlie specific background subtraction algorithms to WSNs. Using experimental data, we show that these techniques are capable of estimating baseline RSS values with enough accuracy that RF tomographic tracking can be carried out in a variety of different environments without the need for a calibration period.